[Assignment 8] -5/27-

Summary of Videos
-Peasants and Monks-
During the dark ages, it was full of confusions. People believed in witches, and disease were spreading. Church said that all the witches and devil story is false story, which didn't helped that much. Also, the economy depended on agriculture, which happened even before Roman Empire. Peasants worked according to season period, and because people had to survive, they had to work hard. One quarter of the new born died, and most of the people experienced death of their parents even before they were adult. So, in order for people to survive, they went in to monastery. Many people who were wealthy went in to monastery, which was a place where monks live. Beed(?) was a man who were most educated. Beed wrote more than 250 books, and wrote many literature. Benedict, who later became abboit, the head of the church, was a man who saved people. People went to him for help, and he was able to help most of them. However, other monks hated him because he asked monks to eliminate the wills, which is the start of everything. So, the monks tried to poisoned him twice, and they couldn't kill him both times.


Barbarians were the people who were feared by many people. They murdered people and stole many things form people. They traveled by ships most of the time, and raided people. They were the main reason of the social and economic changes, because they were so affective. All the boats and ships were built by vikings, ahd buried with their
they were feared by all for their savage ways of murdering and stealing. They often times traveled on ships and raided the people and stormed through the towns taking things and destroying things that they didn't take. They were the cause of many social and economic changes. Great boats and ships were built by the viking and they were often buried with their ships. Farmers were the core of their economics. They resorted to stealing and violence during the dark ages. Many different groups of barbarians were present but they eventually banned together to make better ships and more successful raids. Their ships were their pride and were very well made, they revolutionized traveling over water. Most other people at the time could not make vessels comparable to those of the vikings and barbarians so that was a major advantage for them. The barbarians and vikings were not led by a king or leader, that is what contributed to their brutal ways.

[Assignment 7] -5/20-

Women of the Middle Ages
- A peasant's girl had more hard time than other girls. She had to dressed up in the clothes, which were not in good quality. Usually peasant's girl couldn't write, but they where able to read fairly well, and count up to only 20. Nobles' girls have much better life. Nobles' girls have servant to take care of them, and unlike a peasant's girl, they don't have to work. They think about the marriage, which is important factor to them. Princesses, who probably have the best treatment, are usually concerned about their marriage too. They are worried about marring with man who only look for the king's money. However, they live much better than peasant's girls.

- There were lots of types of castle. The first stone castle was built in 9th century, and it was held by mortar. The castle had inner and outer side, which had different function.In case the enemy got through the Outer wall the Inner wall was also protective to the king and his servants. The Outer wall is covered in merlons which are steel plates so it is harder to get through the wall. The holes in the wall are made for defenders to fire arrows at the enemy. It was also contained strong defense skill, by the castle itself.

Medieval People
- There were three kinds of people in Medieval. There were king, the ladies, and the doctor. The King, was basically the one who was rulling the country. He was the most important man, by feudal system. However, king's position was not always secure. People with enough power tried to take over the king. The lady wasn't considered important during Middle Ages. They said that women and girls are gate of devil, which gave less power to women and girls. They had lots of disadvantages, like 10 years old girl had to marry to 60 years old man. The doctors during the Medieval time, was considered one of the most important people, since they cured the patients, and it was very important to cure diesease.

[Assignment 1~3] -5/14-

-Assignment 1-
1. Since these barbarian tribes were in 'Dark Ages', do you think they were friendly towards each other? Why or why not?
-> Probably they were not friendly towards each other, since there were war occurring, and it was in total chaos. When the Roman Empire fell, it loses it's power, and because there weren't anything to control, crimes were happening alot. So, probably they weren't very friendly toward each other.

2. One of the tribes we didn't study was called Merovingians. Who were the Merovingians?
-> The kings of the largest tribe that settled lands where is now France and Germany were called the Merovingian kings, and ruled from A.D. 400 until the A.D. 700s.

3. Who was Clovis and why was his conversion to Christianity important in history?
-> Clovis is a Merovingian King who ruled from 481 A.D. The was a brutal warrior, and after 15 years of taking the throne, Clovis became converted to Christianity.

-Assignment 2-
1. What is considered the beginning of the Middle Ages?
-> After the warriors attacked the Rome, and when the Rome fell, the next 1000years is considered as Middle Ages.

2. What is the Latin name for the Middle Ages?
-> Latin name for the Middle Ages is 'medieval.'

3. Why do you think the Middle Ages are often called the 'Dark Ages'? What was the only hope for people during these difficult times?
-> Middle Ages are often called the 'Dark Ages' because the Greece and Roman fell and life in Europe during the Middle Ages was very hard. Very few people was able to read or write and nobody thought the situation will be any better soon. The only hope for most people during the Middle Ages was their belief in Christianity, and the hoped that life in heaven will be better than life in Earth.

4. While Europe was in the 'Dark Ages,' what was happening in the rest of the world?
-> While Europe was in the 'Dark Ages,' the Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa studied and improved on the works of the ancient Greeks. Also the some of the civilization flourished in sub- Saharan Africa, China, India, and the Americas.
The Muslims in the Middle East and North Africa studied and improved on the works of the ancient Greeks while civilization flourished in sub-Saharan Africa, China, India, and the Americas.

5. How long did the 'Dark Ages' last and what year did they end?
-> Dark Ages last for about 1000 years, and it ended in about 1450A.D.

6. What does Renaissance mean and what happened during this time?
-> Renaissance mean 'rebirth' and it meant modern history of the Europe.

[H.W-Middle Ages] -5/11-

1. a. How are monks and monasteries related?
Answer: Monks are religious men who lived apart from society, and communities of moks is called monasteries.
b. Why did missionaries travel to northern Europe?
Answer: Missionaries travel to northern Europe to spread Christianity.
c. Why do you think monks followed such strict rules?
Answer: I think monks followed such strict rules because they were religious men, and religious men should be innocent and clean, since they are the one who have relationship with the god. By having strict law, they would not do anything wrong, which will make them to be sacred.

2. a. What is Charlemagne famous for?
Charlemagne was famous for being brilliant warrior and strong king.
b. What do you think Charlemagne’s greatest accomplishment was? Why?
Charlemagne conquered part of Roman Empire, and I think it is the greatest accomplishment because he was crowned Charlemagne Emperor by Pope Leo ll by this.

3. a. What areas of Europe did the Vikings raid?
Viking, who came from Scandinavia, raid Britain, Ireland, western Europe.
b. Why were people in Europe so frightened of Viking raids?
Viking was able to sail around sea that they were able to reached inland cities and attack cities, such as Iberian and Italian Peninsulas.

-Assignment 3-
1. How did Charlemagne and the Franks turn their kingdom into an empire?
-> Charlemagne and the Franks had great leadership, and they were doubling the size of the land, which later became into an empire.

2. What did Charlemagne do to educate people?
-> Charlemagne was opening schools in the empire to educate people properly.

3. How and why did Charlemagne preserve ancient texts?
-> Charlemagne preserve ancient texts by coping Roman writings and preserving them for future generations.

[H.W.-World Religion] -4/20-


Hinduism is a Indigenous religion of India that developed to present day's Hinduism. It has approximately 900 million adherents, and it has one Supreme Reality manifested in many gods and goddesses. They believe Humans are in bondage to ignorance and illusion, but are able to escape, and they try to gain release from rebirth, or at least a better rebirth by believing it. After life for people who believe Hinduism, believe reincarnation until gain enlightenment. They practice Yoga, meditation, worship called as puja, devotation to a god or goddess pilgrimage to holy cities, and living accoring to one's dharma, the perpose or role.

[Assignment 1] -3/30-

Look at the World Population map in the resources section above and answer the following questions on your student page 1.
1. What are somethings that didn't surprise you about the information on the map?
- I was not quite surprised by Indonesia having the highest Muslim population, because I already knew that Indonesia is a country with the most Muslim population.
2. Which areas/countries of the world are you surprised have a large Muslim population?
- I was surprised by Muslim population of China, because I never thought that China had many Muslim.
3. Which country has the highest Muslim population? Why do you think this country has the highest Muslim population?
- Indonesia had the highest Muslim population. I think it's because it was a place where Muslim started.
4. Why do you think Islam is spread out so much?
- As people move place to place, their religion should have spread around. It should have affected people who probably was not satisfied with their religion, and found religion 'Islam,' and started to worship Allah. Also they may just found Allah the better god.

[Photo Gallery Questions] -3/19-

1. In what way are the Muslims you see in the photo gallery different?
- Some of them have nose pierced, have their turban on, have their veil on and some of they are black. However, some of them don't wear turbans, veil, and some of them are white. Some of them have jewelry on, some of them don't.

2. What do you think accounts for these differences?
- Since they are from all different place, they will going to have different way of looking. Some of them may be more opened, but some of them would be more strict.

[Note of Byzantine Empire] -3/9-

- To before the fall of the Roman Empire, Rome splits into Estern an dWestern Empires in 330 C.E. and Christianity becomes the official religion.
- Constaintine moved the capital of the Roman Empire est, to the old Greek civilization of Byzantium.
- Constantine rebuilt the old Greek community and named it Constantinople, after himself.
- Constantine moved the capital because the Rome was weakening due to Political troubles, Barbarian invasions, and Inflation.
- Byzantium is easy to defend and great for Trade.
- Constantinople Thrives, but Rome Dies, while the old Western Capital of Rome sinks. Eastern empire booms -> Western Empire threatens to let down Eastern Empire.
- Boom of Byzantium
+ Geography: A great location
+ Trade and Wealth
+ Political organization
+ Checks and Balances
+ Powerful military
+ Religion-Christianity
+ Art and Architecture
- Coinage-gold coins called 'nomisma'
- Boom-> Trade, Industry
- Gateway between Europe and Asia
- Taxed goods traveling thorugh the city
- Political Organization
+ Emperor -> determined taxes, controlled the army, controlled the treasury, presided over all festivities, head of the Eastern Orthodox Church. <most powerful, not all powerful
-Check and Balances
+ Moderated by three groups -> The Senate, The Army, The Citizens
- By voting, these groups could choose a successor and throw and emperor out of office
- Military
+ The strongest military in Europe
+ Part in politics
- The Navy
+ Smaller than the Army, and 100-300 sailors per ship
+ Carried a 'secret weapon' GREEK FIRE
+ GREEK FIRE: was pumped into bronze lion heads mounted on warships and then shot across the water to set enemy vessels on fire. The flames could not be put out with water. Greek Fire was probably made from petroleum products.

[Paragraph about Assassination of Julius Caesar] -2/9-

Assassination of Julius Caesar happened on the Ides of March, 44BC, in Ancient Rome. It was happened by a group of senators who were called Liberatores. The group was led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus, his brother-in-law. Liberatores killed Caesar, hoping for restore of Roman Republic, and mainly, get back their power. However, Caesar wasn't simple dictator, instead he was military general and at the same time, political leader, who had big authority. So, the act of Assassination of Julius Caesar didn't casued Roman Republic to restore, and it was a start of Liberators' civil war, and father more, beginning of the Roman Empire. Gauis Octavianus, Caesar's adopted heir, was the one who resulted to bring Roman Empire Period in Roman.

[Assignment #7] -2/6-
1. The Rubicon River was the boundary where a general had to disband his army before returning to Rome.
2. Pompey didn't stay in Rome to fight Caesar because Caesar had 11 legions, and Pempey had 2 legions.
3. Rome was abandoned in January 17, 49 B.C.
4. Caesar wanted the money from the Senate for the battle between Pempey, and giving soldiers money. .
5. Caesar got the money from the Senate by .
6. After defeating Pompey in
Phrasalus in central Greece, Caesar returned to Rome and made himself dictator.
7. Pompey fled to Egypt and was trying to raise another army, but he was murdered.
8. Caesar stayed in power for 5
9. Caesar was killed on Ides of March (March 15) in 44 BC, by a group of senators, led by Marcus Junius Brutus.
10. The Assassination of Julius Caesar has become the name of his assassination.