1. Fort Sumpter

2.3 Events that lead to war

3. Secession

4. First Bull Run

5. Stonewall Jackson

6. George McClellan

7. Robert E Lee

8. 7 Days Battle

9. Ironclads

10. Anaconda Plan- Make a blockade around the South to stop all export and import.

11. Vicksburg

12. Shiloh

13. Emancipation Proclamation

14. Gettysburg Address

15. Gettysburg

16. Picketts Change

17. William Sherman

18. Wilderness Campaign

19. Appimatox

20. John Wilkes Booth - assassinated Abraham Lincoln

21. Reconstruction-

1.a. Stonewall Jackson was killed by a friendly fire in the battle of Chancellorsville with Hooker’s troop.
1.b. It was because General Amrose gave the Confederates a chance to reunite and prepare for the battle. Also, the Union army was almost cut into two during the battle.
2.a.President Abraham Lincoln made a speech called Gettysburg address praising the bravery of union soldiers and resumed the commitment to winning the war.
2.b. There were barriers around the Union soldier so it protected them from the Confederates.
3.a. The purpose of the Wilderness Campaign was to capture the confederate capital at Richmond.
3.b. William Tecumseh carried out a plan to destroy the railroads and industries. Also the Union took over Atlanta with force against confederate General John Hood. The loss of Atlanta cost the South an important railroad link and its center of industry.
4.a. Lee’s army was trapped by Union army and then he recognized that the situation was hopeless. So the Confederates had to surrender.
4.b. The southern economy was ruined after all the slaves were free. The slaves had no home or job.

  1. a.He was the commander of the forces of Union’s western campaign.

b.So, Grant’s army and the Army of Ohio ,fought against the Rebel army of A. S. Johnston. And as a result the Union army gained greater control of the Mississippi River Valley.

c.Lincoln would have approved Grant’s actions because, he was angry about the cautious, hesitant General McClellan who was not like Grant.

2.a. The victory at New Orleans was an important because New Orleans was the largest city of the Confederacy at the time, and is the the the the gateway to Mississippi River. David Farragut, he was unable to destroy the Fort, so he raced past them during the night by disguising the ships.

b.They actually starved due to the lack of food.

c.Now that they had control over the Mississippi River they were able to cut off the Confederacy’s food sources.

Missouri compromise- The congress passed the Missouri Compromise in 1820 which settled the conflict that has arisen from Missouri’s application for statehood. The United States congress decided to accept Maine into the Union as a slave state and as a free states, however they also agreed in that importing enslaved africans into Missouri would be illegal.

secession- is a formal withdrawal -Despite Lincoln’s belief that there could be no compromise about the extension of slavery numerous Southern Secessionists argued that they had the right to leave the Union. The ladder pointed out that the original states had voluntarily joined the Union and considering that without slave labor the Southerner’s economy and way of life will be destroyed, Southerner’s believed that states could leave the Union.

Compromise of 1850- With the compromise of 1850, introduced by Henry clay, California was able to enter the Union as a free state, and the rest of the Mexican Secession was divided into 2 territories Utah and New Mexico.In these two areas the question of whether to allow slavery would be decided by the public.

Fugitive Slave LAw- The fugitive slave law stated that it was a crime to help to runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest in free areas.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin”(1852)- it is an Anti-slavery novel written Harriet Beecher Stowe.

Ostend Manifesto(1854)- It was a secret document by diplomats of Ostend describing a plan to acquire Cuba from Spain.

Kansas Nebraska Act-It is a plan introduced by Stephan Douglas in 1854 that would divide the remainder of Louisiana purchase into 2 territories Kansas and Nebraska moreover. It allowed the people in each territory to decide to whether they were going to be a slave state or not.

Dred Scott case- is a supreme court case(1857) that concerned an enslaved man called Dred scott who claimed because he had lived in a free state he was no longer a slave when he returned to a slave state. The court said that it was not important whether he was free or slave because he was an African-American who was not considered a U.S citizen and therefore he cannot sue.

John Brown’s Raid - John Brown’ raid began on October 16 of the year 1859 when he and his men took over the Arsenal in Harpers Ferry Virginia in hopes of starting a rebellion. His plan failed and he was convicted of treason,murder, and conspiracy.

Election 1860- It is important because it reveals the decreasing political power of the Southern states.The northern Democrats represented by Douglas, Southern Democrats represented by Breckinridge, and the constitutional union party represented by John Bell all lost to Lincoln who was supported by a Unified Republican Party. Lincoln’s victory angered the Southerners because Lincoln did not carry any southern States.

Main Ideas-due Monday
Research the following main ideas using the resources provided to you below. Record your information in your student page

  1. Analyze the significance of the State's Rights Doctrine, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), the Dred Scott Decision (1857), and the election of Abraham Lincoln (1860).
State’s right doctrine- It decreases the power of the federal government and strengthens the state governments by giving them a choice to choose whether to become a slave state or a free state.
Missouri Compromise- After Missouri was accepted into the Union as a slave state, Main also was accepted to be a free state.
Compromise of 1850- California was approved to enter the Union as a free state and New Mexico and Utah was waiting to be decided by the public to whether be a slave or free state.
Kansas-Nebraska act-Divided the land purchased from France( Louisiana) to 2 territories: Kansas and Nebraska. It was left for the public to decide to be a slave or free state.
Dred Scott case- Dred scott was a slave and sued his master claiming that because he lived a certain period in a free state he is a free man. However declined.
the election or Abraham Lincoln- Lincoln defeated all the other candidates without carrying any southern states. This event angered the Southern states.

2. Discuss the importance of the slavery issue as raised by the annexation of Texas and California's admission to the union as a free state under the Compromise of 1850. - California joined the Union as a free state and Texas joined as a slave state. The other free and Northern states feared that Texas joining the Union as a slave state might give too much strength and power to the Southern states.

  1. The major components of Monroe doctrine was warning the European countries that to stay back from the Western Hemisphere, and keeping United States out of the affairs between European countries. It was mainly to keep war and protect territories. However, the Monroe Doctrine still recognized the colonies of European countries.

  2. The European countries criticized Monroe Doctrine and was not happy about it. It was because they cannot travel further to the west side of America

  3. France sold Louisiana to United States because for the French, the land was useless. There were Native Indians who refused to obey, the land was too big, it took money and soldiers to take control. There were no benifits given to the French having this land. Also France wanted money for the debt. For United States, they needed land, and a pathway to travel westwards . For these circumstances is was possible for United States to purchase Louisiana in such a cheap price.

The case is called Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka case. Oliver Brown, a father of a African American third grader, Linda Brown. The reason for suing the Board of Education was the separation of school between African- Americans and the white students. It was a system that discriminated the against the African Americans and also violated the 14th amendment. The 14th Amendment was the all Americans are given equal protection and by extension, the right to have an equal education. I definitely agree with the ruling made ini the Supreme Court. It is just not only against the 14th Amendment but is a morally wrong thing to do or to be happened.

1. There are nine
2. Supreme court handles important problems such as abortion, stem cells, etc..
3. It is an act of 1789 making a judiciary branch of the federal government
- 6 members of supreme court
-13 district courts
-Supreme court can dispute can settle conflicts between states.
-Supreme court's decision is final
4. Marbury was a federalist, and he did not get to be justice of the peace in Washington DC. There were conflicts between the congress, president, and other candidates. After the judgement in the supreme court, Marshall lost the political battle. However there was a new power given to the Supreme court, the judicial branch, to examine the new law that will be passed and to throw out laws of the Congress

Why did Thomas Jefferson want to explore the west?

The first reason that Stephen states, is that Jefferson wanted land. Virginia planters mainly wanted more land to plant crops such as tobacco and after several years move to a different land to plant tobaccos. The second reason was that Thomas Jefferson had a vision of making an empire that would stretch from coast to coast and bound together with a political concept.

Why was Lewis an ideal leader for the Corps of Discovery?

Lewis was a man who always stayed cool. There was also some facts that Thomas Jefferson really trusted Lewis and Lewis was Thomas Jefferson’s right han man is the White House. Lewis also had perfect characteristics to be a leader: great integrity, truly marvelous insightful leadership. But he did not succeed as a politician in St.Lewis

What kind of man was William Clark?
William and Lewis were both military men. William was also proven to an excellent mapmaker compared to other explorers. It is proven by lewis by choosing Clark as his co-captain and his companion.

Who was Sacagawea, and how did she aid the expedition?
Sacagewea was a Native American married to a Frenchmen. She was told she was helping the crew as a guide, however it seemed that she had some ability to read the landscape. She knew how to speak Shoshoni language in order to communicate with the native Americans.

What was life for York, Clark’s black slave, during the expedition?
York was not only a slave, but he was Clark’s childhood companion. It is told that Yotk had a great time in his expedition. York became a full member of the expedition, he earned a rifle, and he got to vote.

How did Lewis and Clark deal with the Indians they encountered?
Lewis and Clark tried to have trading relationship with the native Americans.

What kind of animals did Lewis and Clark discover?
Prairie dogs, mosquitoes, grizzlybears, and buffalos

What are some lesser known stories of the expedition?
There are stories about Lewis’ dog Seaman, about liquor, and how clark named the are he explored.

What is larger historical significance of the expedition?
The trading between UNited States and the Native Americans started. They also started receiving the European culture.

Other Andrew's on bottom.

Religion Talk - April 19th

Religion: Rastafari

Originating from the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Rastafari is a small religion based around their one god, Jah. The religion states that people are the temples of Jah, and that all must return to their heritage of Africa. They say heaven is a return to Africa. The religions practices are mainly based on jewish culture, and the use of marajuana is recommended for religious purposes. Their holy book is the 'Holy Piby'.

Assignments 1-5 Islam - March 20th

Assignment 1

1. What are somethings that didn't surprise you about the information on the map?
- That the areas near Pakistan have a high population of Muslims, for the religion did start there.

2. Which areas/countries of the world are you surprised have a large Muslim population?
- Areas like China and Bangladesh. I didn't really think it'd be in those areas.

3. Which country has the highest Muslim population? Why do you think this country has the highest population?
- Indonesia. I suppose that it might have been a large trading area, and when it spread to that area, the number of followers increased quickly.

4. Why do you think Islam is spread out so much?
- Because different people believe in different things. And because it was probably spread around the world by those already believing in the religion.

Mapping Modern Muslim World Questions - March 19th

1. In what way are the Muslims you see in the photo gallery different?
- They wear many different types of clothing, but they are generally the same in a sense. Some seem richer than others, with golden jewelery. Some have beards, some don't. Their facial expressions and genetic structures must be different.

2. What do you think accounts for the differences?
- Due to social classes, genes from different parents, how cheap they are? Some are men, some women, some just haven't grown very much yet. Location also determines these traits, they'll all look different.

Sorry I posted this late, forgot that we had to post it.

Number 5.

1. Using website #1,

  • list at least three Roman province names that you recognize.
1-Britannia (Britain)
  • give the modern name of the Roman provinces that you listed.

Use website #2 to answer these questions:
2. Where are you from and how were the Romans able to conquer you?
-I am in the Roman province of Gallia, in northern Europe. We were invaded about 100 years ago, and are now considered barbarians.

3. What are two consequences of your defeat?
-You could never see your family again, and the Romans would destroy your weapons, all of them.

4. On the way back to Rome, some of your friends have died. Why?
-They died from hunger, disease, and beatings.

5. What happens to you in the market?
-I’m bought by a rich man who plans to turn me into a Roman gladiator.

6. What will you become? What could you have become? Which is better?
-I am to become a gladiator, while I could’ve been a miner, a quarry worker, a boat rower, or farmer. Any of those might’ve been better.

7. Who is your favorite person on staff? Why?
-I like the Cook, because of his pot of food.

8. Which gladiator do you want to be? Why?
-I’d try to chose to be none of them, but if I have to. I’d try to be an essedarius, which has a carriage. It would be nice.

9. How will the crowd be entertained?
-Warm ups, gambling, fighting, real weapons, music, and action. Along with a noisy crowd.

10. When can you have a rest?
-Never. No, not really. I can rest when pairs of criminals fight to the death.

11. How do you appeal to the emperor?
-By raising one finger on the left hand.

12. What happens to you?
-In some way, you’re left to die, or thrown in a pit. Otherwise, dead. And your blood and such is cleaned off the sand.

Number 7

1. The rubicon river was the boundary where a general had to disband his army before returning to Rome.
2. Pompey didn't stay in Rome to fight Caesar because Caesar had a much larger army.
3. Rome was abandoned in 49 B.C.
4. Caesar wanted the money from the Senate for supplies and equipment.
5. Caesar got the money from the Senate by taking it from the vaults.
6. After defeating Pompey in Pharasaluso, Caesar returned to Rome and made himself emperor.
7. Pompey fled to Egypt and was murdered.
8. Caesar stayed in power for 5 years.
9. Caesar was killed on his castle by an enemy spy.
10. The ides of march has become the name of his assassination.

Assignment 10 - Feb 16th, 2009

1. In what ways did the culture of the Huns differ from that of the Romans?
- The huns did not live in normal houses, they avoided roofed places. They tended to go about traveling the mountains and forests. Horses were used for trading, they were used during councils, and meetings.

2. How did the way of life of the Huns give them an advantage against Rome? How was it a disadvantage?
- They were quick and had no regular order of attack, meaning they were savage and swift in their movements. Thus being able to rob a village without anybody noticing, and bring chaos to the order of Rome. Although, they were not as advanced in thinking or technology. They had no strategic plans and could be outsmarted.

3. Why did the "barbarians" move into the Roman Empire?
- The barbarians (huns) moved into the empire due to their increasing size and want in land.

4. What routes did these invaders take?
-They had initially moved into the western roman empire, disrupting almost the entire western empire. They traveled by land and sea into many different regions of the empire.

5. How were they treated by the Romans when they began moving into the Empire?
-The romans were quite vulnerable to the attacks brought on by the Huns, they were scrambled about the empire, and the romans could not form a proper army.

6. Why was Attila so feared?
- Due to the 100,000 soldiers at his disposal, he was able to conquer almost all in his path, excluding Constantinople and its high walls.

7. Why were the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire initially untouched by barbarian invasions in the 4c and 5c C.E.?
-The seas surrounded the eastern empire, and Constantinople stopped those who tried to cross by land.

1.a.National debt(Foreign debt) was a serious problem which was money owed by the united States made by the revolutionary war. The main challenge was who will pay for the war debt. It is because the southern states were not involved in the war but when all the states have to pay all equal money it was unfair for the southern states.
b.Some southern states thought that the fact that the capital was situated in NY gave the northern states too much influence over the national policy. Alexandria Hamilton suggested to move the capital to the south Philadelphia. Jefferson and Madison agreed to gather support in the South for Hamilton’s debt plan.
2.a.Hamilton had little faith in the average individual and therefore therefore believed in a strong federal government. With a strong central government Hamilton stated that it could balance the power between the average people and the wealthier citizens. Jefferson on the other hand believed in enforcing the powers of the states. Jefferson affirmed the average citizen’s ability to make decision for the country.

    1. Hamilton was a New Yorker who believed in the importance of promoting the manufacturing and business sector of the country. Hamilton wanted to impose protective tariffs in order to raise the prices of foreign products and therefore encourage the Americans to buy U.S goods. However Jefferson,a southerner who was from Virginia, disagreed with Hamilton in that he focused on developing the agricultural environment. Because he thought that the farmers were the most independent voters. Jefferson wanted to help these farmers by keeping the prices low.
    2. I agree with Hamilton in his idea that a single person can seldom judge or determine rights. Because of this reason, I believe that the government is the only body that can successfully advocate the rights for the citizens and therefore it is necessary to have a strong central government.
3.a. Jefferson opposed the creation of the Bank of the UNited States in two main reasons. First, Hamilton’s plan to start a national bank would give too much power to the federal government. For jefferson who believed in increasing the powers of the states, Hamilton’s plan was an abuse of the central government’s power. Second, Jefferson opposed the creation of the central bank because the constitution did not give the congress such power. Although hamilton delineated the elastic clause which states that the congress can “Make all laws should be necessary and proper” Jefferson thought that the elastic clause should be only used in special cases (when it is necessary).There fore Jefferson believed in strict construction of the constitution.
b.Loose construction means that the federal government can take reasonable actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid, whereas strict construction means that the federal should do only what the constitution specifically says what it can do.
c.Hamilton wanted to create a National bank because he thought the government can safely deposit its money. moreover he stated that this national bank could make loans to the government and businesses and therefore revive the economy. Furthermore he underlined the importance to make the national bank as a place to make coins.


1.electoral college has selected George Washington fully in agreement in the presidential election which made John Adams become the vice president

b.She did not have a big role, however entertained guests and attended docial events with her husband.

2.a. George Washington ordered to meet cabinet member s and top advisers. this was started by Washington and was common by 1792/

b. Judiciary Act of 1789 created three levels of federal courts and defined their powers and relationship to the state courts.

  1. I believe that it was creating the three federal courts so the candidates had to be approved by the Senate.

  2. a. The two largest cities of that time were New York City and Philadelphia. NYC was selected as the first capital of the US, and represented the spirit of new nation.

b.Citizens of United States feared that the government might go back and follow the government system of England.

  1. I do not think it should be served as the first capital anymore. It is because, unlike the 18th century, there are more populated and developed cities all over the country. There can be a variety of choice with supportive reasons.

4.Washington Decision (Precedent) + Act of Congress (Judiciary Act,preceden) = First U.S government

Eh yeah, we got the same page, I'll ask mr.campbell for another.

  1. Should the government's power come from the states or the people?-
The government’s power should come from the people.
  1. Should slaves be counted as people or property for determining representation in Congress?
There were people in the congress who were slave owners, so even though the law was suggested, it would not come true. For the states which depended on crop-growing slaves were a big source for them.
  1. Should the slave trade be outlawed or allowed to continue?
It should be continued for the economic reasons, but it should end someday
  1. Should a single person be allowed to head (lead) the executive branch?
There should be a 2nd person that can lead the executive in emergencies or if the nation is going to a dictator ship
  1. Should the chief executive (president) be elected by the Congress or by the people?
As the Americans do now the people will vote for the senators, and the senators will vote for the president.

  • constitution-the basic st of written principles and precents in the federal government of U.S which came into operation in 1789
  • Virginia Plan-(1787) the plan for government proposed at the Constitutional Convention in which the national government would have supreme power and a legislative branch would have two houses with representation determined by state population
  • New Jersey Plan-a proposal to create a unicameral legislature with equal representation of states rather than representation by population; rejected at the Constitutional Convention
  • compromise
  • __Great Compromise__--1787) an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention establishing that a state's population would determine representation in the lower house of the legislature, while each state would have equal representation in the upper house of the legislature
  • Three-Fifths Compromise-1787) an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention stating that enslaved people would be counted as three-fifths of a person when determining a state’s population for representation in the lower house of Congress
electoral college-a body of people representing the states of U.S, who formallycast votes for the president and the vice president.

Hmm.....Is it Andrew Lee who erased all my previous work and giving me a hard time updating my hw?
Please contact me, i couldn't figure out how to solve this problem nor I couldn't update my HW.
I am confused, where should I update my hw.Lets make this clear, is this my page or your page.

From: 8th grader Andrew Park:)