- Middle Ages

May 29th 2009 - Middle ages t-chart

A Merovingian king who converted to Christianity after 15 years of ruling. This conversion to Christianity led to the change of faith in many of his people. This conversion would eventually help when fighting the Muslims.
Frankish Empire (Charlemagne)
Under Charlemagne's rule, the Franks conquered many areas of land including France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. These connected areas soon become to be the Frankish Empire, which was the first time western Europe had been under one main rule since the Fall of Rome. Charlemagne sought to improve the intellectual state of his empire by opening schools. He had also copied and preserved texts from previous empires.
Coming from overpopulated Scandinavia, the vikings left in search of land and wealth. The vikings were excellent warriors who would show no mercy. They would burn down anything they did not take, and would often torture their victims.
Due to constant barbarian attacks, the economy and trade plummeted as the communities took a toll on their lives. During this time of a weakened government that was losing power, a new type of government started called Feudalism. This began in France at around 900 A.D. and spread throughout Europe within 150 years.
Lords and Knights
As Feudalism went on, lords gave away land to their vassals who were obligated to serve their lord. The vassal could have their own vassals as well. These vassals were to server their lord and provide knights to fight and peasants to work.
Feudal Castles
In order to protect themselves, feudal lords created magnificent castles that would house them and their family. These contained a keep and would also have many stores, workshops, chapels, soldiers quarters, and many more. The castle would hold its ground and would be a very sturdy defense.
The conduct by which a code of ethics was used. Chivalry promoted honesty, fairness, and respect. These acts of chivalry soon became a normal way of life for most of western Europe.
The Authority of the Church
As Christianity spread, the pope, the highest leader of Christianity begun to gain a great amount of power. These powers soon became greater as faith grew stronger.
The inquisition (Heresy)
In 1232 A.D., the Catholic Church created a court known as the Inquisition. The Inquisition was in charge of seeking and dealing with those who do not follow the standard way of life. Although not always valid, those who were charged of heresy were tortured until they told the truth. Even if they did not do anything wrong. The tortures included imprisonment, loss of land, loss of titles, and even death.
William the Conqueror
After the death of Edward the Conqueror in 1066 A.D., William the Conqueror stood up and took his place as the new king. Being the cousin of Edward, William of France was a vassal to Edward. William gathered an army of over 6000 soldiers and conquered England, gaining him his title. He also added a tax to gather money for the kingdom, and used a census to decide how it was.
The Black Death
The black death was one of the deadliest pandemics in recorded history. It spread around Europe during the later middle ages. Originating from Asia (near china), the black death was transmitted through rodents and fleas all the way to Europe.
The Renaissance
The renaissance was time after the middle ages where innovation rocketed upwards. New information was gathered, and it was a new golden time.The Renaissance, meaning 'rebirth', was after the middle ages.

May 26th 2009 - Assignment 9, Monks

1. How did the Church attempt to enhance the quality of life in medieval Europe?
-The church attempted to give meaning to every aspect of life, and thus adding interest to some jobs and activities.

2. Why do you think medieval peasants would support the Church?
-Everybody was equal in the church, peasants could be the same as a king. Salvation in the next life.

3. How did the Church bring about an increase in political stability in Europe?
-Jobs were separated into individual groups where people could specialize in their own specific job.

4. How were a feudal manor and a monastic community similar?

5. What were some of the problems and abuses that arose within the medieval church?
-Because of the fact that both the pope and king had great power, both fought against each other. This later came to the point of where the pope had the power over the soul and the king the body. The church began to control the lives of people.

6. Did the church provide for greater or less order in the medieval society?
-The church provided a greater order for the medieval society due to the fact that causing trouble would've been a sin. Where people are afraid of punishment, there wouldn't be much crime.

7. Could a bishop or abbot be a feudal lord as well?
-No, bishops and abbots cannot be feudal lords.

9. Why do you think the European Middle Ages is known as the "Age of Faith?"
-The strong religious beliefs are probably the main source of that name. Where life is basically based around faith, there's no questions to be asked.

May 26th 2009 - Video notes/summary

Monks and Peasants

-Dangerous, unknown threats, no new ideas or thoughts
-worked according to seasonal patterns, everybody in the family would work
-half of the children would die - generally -most lose parents by adulthood
-monasteries became a center of activity
-730 A.D. Bead wrote a volume history of England
-Saint Benedict, hermit, made the 'rule of Saint Benedict' (to eliminate your will)

There was no true advancement in invention and thought through out the Middle Ages, but there were, however, some main points of events that occurred. This included a five volume history of Europe reaching all the way back to Rome created by Bead in 730 A.D.. Due to this lack of ideas and cures to sickness, the times were very dangerous, unknown threats could be lurking about, and a thief could be hiding right behind you. Children and adults a like both died most lost their parent by adulthood. Monasteries became a center of activity, and the church had great control over Europe. During that time, Saint Benedict, a hermit who healed and preformed miracles, was turned into a monk leader. From there, he created the 'Rule of Saint Benedict', which was to eliminate your will. The Middle ages, or the dark ages, was a rough time for everybody, many died, and just trying to survive was great challenge.


-explorers, settlers, traders,
-1200 years ago, vikings came from the north sea.
-came from scandinavia
-1880, norway, found a burial ship
-lifestyle based around survival, horrid weather
-fights between viking clans over land due to overpopulation
-would invade and take everything they could
-viking longship created, could make a boat in a month, could sail up into the north, very fast boat

Explorers, settlers, traders, fighters, the vikings were a brutal group of clans that could invade and take everything from you. Originating from around 1200 year ago, the vikings came from the northern seas in Scandinavia. With their lifestyle based around surviving the rough conditions around them, the vikings were a very strong group. The population even grew above what they could maintain, and the viking clans would attack one another. Although the vikings were barbarians, they also had amazing innovations in sailing technology. Their main invention was the viking longship. The viking longship was a large, sturdy boat that would take about one month to complete. The longship was capable of sailing into harsh waters and could sail upriver. Including the fact that the ship was fast, the viking longship was one of the best innovations of its time. With this great advantage, the vikings were very fierce and could barely be stopped.

May 19th 2009 - Life in the Middle Ages Summary

Made for defense and better living conditions, these giants of stone and mortar were the safest place to be. These buildings are fortified to withhold attacks and to stop possible invasion as they are surrounded by a moat and covered in armed men. Normally, to aid this defense, castles are built upon high hills to make it difficult to reach the block of stone. However, this wasn't the only thing done to protect the people within. There were cannons and crossbows, outer and inner gates, a first and third wall, archers and special tricks, Greek fires and catapults, and much much more. However, all these defenses failed in the end due to a lack of food and supplies, which were the main weakness of the castles.

Life of the Commoners
Commoners, being the lowest class of the feudal system, were indeed, workers, farmers, and serfs. These people had to endure these high taxes and rough times, mainly because they had nowhere to truly go. The commoners were divided into several groups. These groups included the following: the bailiff, the craftsman, the servants, and the peasants. Works like these wore very rough clothing, mainly based around cotton and straw. Accommodations were also very rough and could easily be destroyed. Generally, the commoners were of the lowest class, where they had the hardest times of all.

Foods and Feasts
The foods of the middle ages were very different, coming from many different places in many different varieties. In the northern parts of Europe, they mainly ate sheep, and in the south, they had many fruits and vegetables to feast on. Banquets were generally based around a six meal course, which were for all classes. They ate upon plates with some rough silverware, which broke every so often. To preserve food, food was dried or smoked in the sun. The food of the middle ages were rough and were mostly raw, but were still not as bad as you'd think.

May 19th 2009 - Feudal and Manorial System

-feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties.
-knights were paid with land
-this land given fro service was called a fief.
-the one who accepts a fief is known as a vassal.
-the giver of the land is known as the vassals lord.
-this system of exchanging land was the feudal system.
-lords, vassals in the system had duties to fulfill to one another.
-knights main duty as a vassal was to provide military service for the lord.
-must keep oath of fealty, meaning to remain loyal.
-person could be both a lord and a vassal.
-a knight with a larder fief could give small pieces of their land to other knights.
-One knight could server more than one lord, and could accept more than one fief.
-the feudal system was only a political and social system.
-the manorial system governed the economics.
-it was built around large estates known as manors (generally a fief).
-most of the manor’s land was occupied by fields for crops and agriculture.
-early castles built for defense, not comfort.
-few windows, stuffy in the summer, cold in the winter, always dark.
-despite discomforts, a castle was preferred over a village.
-typical family lived in a wooden one-room house.

May 13th 2009 - Knight Description Paragraph

Dubbed at the young age of 14 as a squire in the battlefield by his master knight, the valiant Sir Sabin the Great of France was the youngest person to ever achieve knighthood. Although seemingly harmless and maybe even cowardly, Sir Sabin the Great is a sturdy fighter that doesn't give up. He will never put down a challenge and will always be satisfied with the outcomes of a duel. A true soldier indeed! Born in the lower regions of the Frankish empire, Sir Sabin the Great rose up and took a stand when his delicate village was attacked. To hold such a strong grasp of loyalty and bravery is no easy task for even the bravest of knights! Holding in his clutches in one arm an extended zweihander, and with the other shielding his bright and ambitious hazel eyes from the stunning sun. Muscular, with a monstrous height, Sir Sabin the Great is worthy of being a king, an emperor! A slow and steady voice calling with a tense and confident smile, he yells his battle cry and skips into the middle of the battle. With a arbalest bow slung from the back of his arm and specially engraved arrows in a barrel upon the other, Sir Sabin the Great is the warrior! His powerful athletic legs can not be stopped! He has the power and skill to wield two giant zweihanders and he will never fall! Inside his tight, full chain mail guards, he is literally unstoppable. A single slash from him causes an immense explosion of agony and suffering in the hearts of others! Sir Sabin jumps off the roof and the ground shakes as he approaches, the dirt fears him, it want to run away! An inevitable earthquake of sheer force expands as the mighty man slams his entire bodies soul into the terrain. His will and desire to survive surpasses even that of an atomic explosion. Carrying a mighty horn to call out his enemies in his little pouch, Sir Sabin the Great is a proud, and rough man! Swinging his two giant weapons at once, Sir Sabin the Great is literally the greatest warrior to ever live. At all times of the day, whether it is the day or night, Sir Sabin the Great is always fighting and hunting! His collection of over 2,000,000 different weapons and armors is just breathtaking, taking over one mile of space to show it all at once! This Frankish man has the power to do it all, and his wisdom is constant and everlasting!

May 13th 2009 - Timeline

Fall of Rome
- (A.D. 476)
- (Middle ages begin)
- (A.D 476-770)
- (Saxons, Ostrogoth, Vandals, Visigoths)
- (A.D. 500)
- (Merovingian King, converted to Christianity)
- (Tries to keep Europe together)
Rise of Feudalism
- (A.D. 500-1500)
- (Fiefs, lords, kings)
Charlemagne's Empire
- (A.D. 970)
- (First King)
- (A.D. 800-900)
- (Advanced barbarians)
- (Most feared, brutal)
Arthur's Legend
- (A.D. 1000-1300)
- (High point of Middle Ages)
Black Death
- (A.D. 1350-1500)
- (1/3 of population dies)
- (A.D. 1500-?)
- (Rebirth or the new foundation)

May 11th 2009 - Middle Ages Assignments 1, 2, & 3

Assignment 1 - The Barbarians

1. Since these barbarian tribes were in the "Dark Ages", do you think they were friendly towards each other? Why or why not?
- No, the barbarian tribes all want their own land and want to conquer more.

2. One of the tribes we didn't study was called the Merovingians. Who were the Merovingians? (Use source 1 to answer this question.)
- The Merovingians were the largest settled barbarian tribe in Europe. They lasted from A.D. 400 to A.D. 700.

3. Who was Clovis and why was his conversion to Christianity important in history? (Use source 2)
- Clovis was a Merovingian king that took the throne after fifteen years of fighting. His conversion to Christianity caused him to try to convert others to Christianity. This conversion would later be critical when fighting against the Muslims.

Assignment 2 - The Dark Ages

1. What is considered the beginning of the Middle Ages?
- The beginning of the Middle Ages is marked by the fall of Rome, at around A.D. 476. The fall was also known as the end of the ancient world.

2. What is the Latin name for the Middle Ages?
- The Latin name for the Middle Ages is 'Medieval.'

3. Why do you think the Middle Ages are often called the "Dark Ages"? What was the only hope for people during these difficult times?
- Due to the falling of the Roman and Greek civilizations, there wasn't much advancement or innovation in technology. Most people were uneducated, roads were abandoned, and times were technically not advancing. Christianity was the only hope for the people.

4. While Europe was in the "Dark Ages", what was happening in the rest of the world?
- The Muslims in northern Africa and Europe studied and improved already known knowledge by the Greeks and Romans.

5. How long did the "Dark Ages" last and what year did they end?
- The 'Dark Ages' lasted for around 1000 years. It ended at about A.D. 1450.

6. What does Renaissance mean and what happened during this time?
- During the Renaissance period, many innovations were made, literature spread, and it was a 'rebirth' of the european world. Art also spread and we know some of these works of art today.

Assignment 3 - The Franks

1. How did Charlemagne and the Franks turn their kingdom into an empire?
- The kingdom doubled in size and Charlemagne conquered many areas such as France, Germany, Spain, and Italy.

2. What did Charlemagne do to educate people?
- Charlemagne opened up schools throughout Europe.

3. How and why did Charlemagne preserve ancient texts?
- Charlemagne gathered the brightest scholars and copied texts and records for future generations. These texts came from the Romans and previous empires.

May 6th 2009 - Middle Ages Questions and Terms

Vocabulary & Terms
  1. Middle Ages – The time between the fall of Rome and the fall of Constantinople. Also known as the dark ages.
  2. medieval – Meaning ‘middle ages’
  3. Patrick - A missionary of Christianity, a saint.
  4. monks - People who devote themselves to the church to get closer to god.
  5. monasteries - A community of people under one religious rule.
  6. Benedict - Italian monk who created a set of rules for the monasteries.
  7. Charlemagne - First Holy roman emperor (Charles I)


1. a. How are monks and monasteries related?
-A monk is a person who is dedicated to faith in their god. A monastery is a collection or group of those monks.
b. Why did missionaries travel to northern Europe?
-To teach people about Christianity, to try and convert the northern people.
c. Why do you think monks followed such strict rules?
-Because of their strict rules, they could possibly keep a closer relationship to their god, obeying the orders and such.

2. a. What is Charlemagne famous for?
-Charlemagne was famous for leading the franks to build a vastly large empire.
b. What do you think Charlemagne’s greatest accomplishment was? Why?
-How he had led the Franks into building his empire, and how he been able to conquer so much land. It's impressive?

3. a. What areas of Europe did the Vikings raid?
-The vikings raided Ireland, Britain, and other parts of western Europe.
b. Why were people in Europe so frightened of Viking raids?
-The vikings attacked towns and monestaries, taking prisoners and slaves.

5. Now you see why you might need the protection of knights. Look back at your list and add to it. What services might you hire knights to perform?
-To protect my land, fight my battles, to take over more land, use them as messengers or servants, or otherwise services useful to myself.

- Roman/Islamic Empire

April 19th - Religion Talk

Religion: Rastafari

Originating from the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Rastafari is a small religion based around their one god, Jah. The religion states that people are the temples of Jah, and that all must return to their heritage of Africa. They say heaven is a return to Africa. The religions practices are mainly based on jewish culture, and the use of marajuana is recommended for religious purposes. Their holy book is the 'Holy Piby'.

March 20th - Assignments 1-5 Islam

Assignment 1

1. What are somethings that didn't surprise you about the information on the map?
- That the areas near Pakistan have a high population of Muslims, for the religion did start there.

2. Which areas/countries of the world are you surprised have a large Muslim population?
- Areas like China and Bangladesh. I didn't really think it'd be in those areas.

3. Which country has the highest Muslim population? Why do you think this country has the highest population?
- Indonesia. I suppose that it might have been a large trading area, and when it spread to that area, the number of followers increased quickly.

4. Why do you think Islam is spread out so much?
- Because different people believe in different things. And because it was probably spread around the world by those already believing in the religion.

March 19th - Mapping Modern Muslim World Questions

1. In what way are the Muslims you see in the photo gallery different?
- They wear many different types of clothing, but they are generally the same in a sense. Some seem richer than others, with golden jewelery. Some have beards, some don't. Their facial expressions and genetic structures must be different.

2. What do you think accounts for the differences?
- Due to social classes, genes from different parents, how cheap they are? Some are men, some women, some just haven't grown very much yet. Location also determines these traits, they'll all look different.

Sorry I posted this late, forgot that we had to post it.

Number 5.

1. Using website #1,

  • list at least three Roman province names that you recognize.

1-Britannia (Britain)

  • give the modern name of the Roman provinces that you listed.


Use website #2 to answer these questions:
2. Where are you from and how were the Romans able to conquer you?
-I am in the Roman province of Gallia, in northern Europe. We were invaded about 100 years ago, and are now considered barbarians.

3. What are two consequences of your defeat?
-You could never see your family again, and the Romans would destroy your weapons, all of them.

4. On the way back to Rome, some of your friends have died. Why?
-They died from hunger, disease, and beatings.

5. What happens to you in the market?
-I’m bought by a rich man who plans to turn me into a Roman gladiator.

6. What will you become? What could you have become? Which is better?
-I am to become a gladiator, while I could’ve been a miner, a quarry worker, a boat rower, or farmer. Any of those might’ve been better.

7. Who is your favorite person on staff? Why?
-I like the Cook, because of his pot of food.

8. Which gladiator do you want to be? Why?
-I’d try to chose to be none of them, but if I have to. I’d try to be an essedarius, which has a carriage. It would be nice.

9. How will the crowd be entertained?
-Warm ups, gambling, fighting, real weapons, music, and action. Along with a noisy crowd.

10. When can you have a rest?
-Never. No, not really. I can rest when pairs of criminals fight to the death.

11. How do you appeal to the emperor?
-By raising one finger on the left hand.

12. What happens to you?
-In some way, you’re left to die, or thrown in a pit. Otherwise, dead. And your blood and such is cleaned off the sand.

Number 7

1. The rubicon river was the boundary where a general had to disband his army before returning to Rome.
2. Pompey didn't stay in Rome to fight Caesar because Caesar had a much larger army.
3. Rome was abandoned in 49 B.C.
4. Caesar wanted the money from the Senate for supplies and equipment.
5. Caesar got the money from the Senate by taking it from the vaults.
6. After defeating Pompey in Pharasaluso, Caesar returned to Rome and made himself emperor.
7. Pompey fled to Egypt and was murdered.
8. Caesar stayed in power for 5 years.
9. Caesar was killed on his castle by an enemy spy.
10. The ides of march has become the name of his assassination.

Feb 16th - Assignment 10

1. In what ways did the culture of the Huns differ from that of the Romans?
- The huns did not live in normal houses, they avoided roofed places. They tended to go about traveling the mountains and forests. Horses were used for trading, they were used during councils, and meetings.

2. How did the way of life of the Huns give them an advantage against Rome? How was it a disadvantage?
- They were quick and had no regular order of attack, meaning they were savage and swift in their movements. Thus being able to rob a village without anybody noticing, and bring chaos to the order of Rome. Although, they were not as advanced in thinking or technology. They had no strategic plans and could be outsmarted.

3. Why did the "barbarians" move into the Roman Empire?
- The barbarians (huns) moved into the empire due to their increasing size and want in land.

4. What routes did these invaders take?
-They had initially moved into the western roman empire, disrupting almost the entire western empire. They traveled by land and sea into many different regions of the empire.

5. How were they treated by the Romans when they began moving into the Empire?
-The romans were quite vulnerable to the attacks brought on by the Huns, they were scrambled about the empire, and the romans could not form a proper army.

6. Why was Attila so feared?
- Due to the 100,000 soldiers at his disposal, he was able to conquer almost all in his path, excluding Constantinople and its high walls.

7. Why were the eastern provinces of the Roman Empire initially untouched by barbarian invasions in the 4c and 5c C.E.?
-The seas surrounded the eastern empire, and Constantinople stopped those who tried to cross by land.