Summary - Castles

Castles were used for protecting the King and Queen as well as village treasures and sorting out some village rules/laws. It was kind of like the main part/heart of the village. Actually, castles were used also for living as well, and great feasts took place in it, too. There were many different parts in a castle, including the King and Queen (Lord and Lady)'s bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchen, some sort of great hall, and many other rooms with spiral staircases and expensive furniture. Sometimes conferences were held there or other famous, high class people visited as guests to the Lord and Lady. Life in the castle was probably quite busy. That is because the Lord and Lady and their many servants/helpers must prepare constantly for any upcoming events or current disasters(which there were much of during the Middle Ages) as well as keeping track of the village itself and its laws. It's not easy being a very high class person at all even in the present day because you have so many responsibilities and things to take care of. Also, even servants were busy no matter how low class they were because they had to do things for the Lord and Lady, like fetching their clothes from a lower floor of the castle or something like that. The people that lived in a castle were probably the marshall, who kept track of daily castle routines, the Lord and Lady, and even some servants, who had to tend to the Lord and Lady and even their children if they had any...every single day. Mainly the staff and lower classes of the Lord and Lady because they had to work and serve the Lord and Lady. There were also barons and knights, who were also high class people situated directly below the Lord and Lady in the feudal system. There were so many parts of the castle that it is hard to count. There were things like a parapet, many bedrooms, bathrooms, halls, conference rooms, etc. You wouldn't be able to find your way around a castle in one day! It was quite complex. There were also many spiral staircases in case an invading enemy tried to come down the stairs fast with a sword but cannot because of the shape of the stairs. There were many servants that milled about all day, serving the Lord and Lady and their families as well, probably, and keeping the castle itself clean and appropriate for living. As said earlier, the castle was mainly the heart of the village in which it was located, so there were knights outside the gates defending the castle. This was pretty much the daily schedule in a castle.

Monks, Peasants, and Vikings
Monks sometimes had to live in monasteries without their will. The Vikings once invaded with no warning on the monks and cut them down, killing them and taking away everything. They just came from Scandinavia and dragged dead bodies and cattle away. A cruel king named Ragnar had a fleet of 120 ships that he used to target Paris by going through the Seine River. The power of these Vikings was terrifying to the rest of Europe and their power increased because the Vikings killed all the people they hated, including the Christians. The Vikings linked the Eastern and Western hemisphere and find new lands. The Christian Vikings and pagans kind of had an Old Testament dual where if the Pagans could not pass through a fire they built, they would know Christianity was one, but if the Christian Vikings could not pass through the Pagans fire that they built, then they would know that the Pagan religion was one, not Christianity. It was about uniting, and the Christians Vikings thought that people should unite to Christianity.
Peasants had to work for a living and were often shunned by the others and people of higher classes. They had to work in fields and pay off their crops to the king and nobles as well as try to find a way to scrape a living and get food and shelter to feed and protect themselves and their children. Sometimes they were the victims of invasions, including invasions from the Vikings and

Assignment #6

Food in the Middle Ages

Back then in the Middle Ages, most of the people and common citizens ate only cattle and sheep. They had fruits, vegetables, and herbs as well in the South of Europe. A banquet was a big feast that usually had 6 courses. Anyone could eat the food, even the poor. They used utensils and had specific places to sit for each person. They knew how to preserve food like meat by drying or smoking it, which kept bacteria from growing on it. Fruits and vegetables were pickled to also last longer. If the meat or fish was rotten, they served it anyways by disguising the rotten food using lots of spices. Some castles had honey from honey bees to sweeten food and drink. Today we have better food but they still had utensils.

Clothing in the Middle Ages
In the Middle Ages, you get clothes depending on your social status. If you are a peasant you just have to get what you find. If you are royal or of noble blood, you'd be wearing silk and fine garments. However, the clothing material in the Medieval Times was rough and scratchy, so it wasn't very comfortable, unless you were very wealthy and got the smooth, fine kinds. Things like tunics and shawls were used to keep away cold. Clothes back then were didn't really have shapes to them. There weren't many colors either; only shades of black, gray, blue, red and just white. Tailors made clothes made of burnet, damask, and sandal, but many made their clothes at home. People like popes, kings, and queens wore brightly colored silk clothing that was very expensive and hard to afford.

Women in the Middle Ages
It depends on what kind of class you are in society. If you are a peasant girl, you're schedule would be the same: plain and boring, like life on a farm feeding chickens and and working int he fields. From a nobleman's daughter's view, there would be servants there to make sure she did things like sewing and embroidery, the tasks women did back in the Middle Ages. It is considered quite a rich life. From a princess' view, it is luxury. There are servants, but your mother and father are probably the King and Queen of your country! Often the princesses were married at quite a young age and sometimes not to the men that they desired...they also had to learn specific manners and even new languages.

Class Notes
Feudalism Powerpoint
The Feudal and Manorial Systems: Main Idea-- In Europe, during the Middle Ages, the feudal and manorial systems governed life and required people to perform certain duties and obligations.
Knights were paid for their services with land
Land given to knight for his service was called a fief.
Anyone accepting fief was called a vassal.
Person from whom he accepted fief was his lord. The lord is a vassal to the king.
Historians call system of exchanging land for service the feudal system, (feudalism)
Oath of Fealty: lords, vassals in feudal system had duties to fulfill to one another
Knight's chief duty as vassal to provide military service to his lord.
Had to promice to remain loyal; called the oath of
The KNIGHT had to remain loyal and give money when needed (fulfilling the lord's duties)
The LORD had to provide protection for the knight.
Europe's feudal system was too complex and confusing so it kinda fell apart after a while
Person could be both lord and vassal. Some knights with large fiefs gave pieces of land to other knights. One knight could serve many lords.

The Manorial System: Manors that were big enough to have crops and people living in them
Typical Manors: Most of manor's land occupied by fields for crops and pastures for animals
How did lords and peasants benefit from the manorial system?
Life in a castle was preferablt to life in a village. Village familes usually lived in small wooden one room houses where the roof is made of straw, the floor made of dirt, the furniture of rough wood. Open holes were windows.
Castle life was more comfortable and people did not need to work in the fields.

Knight Paragraph

My name is Dame Jean and I am a dangerous warrior! I live in France, the country that won the Hundred Years War! My eyes are bright and colored brown, which can clearly show you, sir, that I am not to be messed around with! Watch your step! My voice, many people say, is quite rough. The kind that teaches people lesson without punishment needed! I am tall, one of the tallest of the men in the army at the moment. Therefore I cannot participate in sneak attacks. I might be seen because of my height. I usually always wear my armor, and rarely wear my tunic because of my devoted service to the French army. Right now times are pretty tense, so I need to be cautious of enemies. I am usually kind of tense, especially nowadays, since the Hundred Wars, too. Can’t trust too many people, eh? Sometimes we go to war or have to defend the territory of France miles away. I’m not a sissy, I only carry the most important things. Gun, knife, bathroom materials, a washable cloth, extra clothes, and helmet. No books. I’m loyal to my country, I need to defend it from those wretched Vikings. When we’re not busy, my fellow soldiers and I, we like to practice sports and try out horse riding and lots of tennis. Kinda brings back old memories of our families back in our hometowns.

The Fall of Rome came first.
Then the Barbarians came, like the Visigoths and Ostrogoths.
There was feudalism and then there were the Vikings. They came and were the most feared.
Also, there was Arthur's Legend. Did it really happen?
There was also the Black Plague(death). The people thought that it was gone, but it came back.
At the very end, there was a Renaisssance

Assignment 1

After playing Barbarian Jeopardy, you should have some idea of the many different barbarian tribes that took control of what we now call Europe (see map above). There are actually more tribes we did not talk about.
1. Since these barbarian tribes were in the "Dark Ages", do you think they were friendly towards each other? Why or why not?
2. One of the tribes we didn't study was called the Merovingians. Who were the Merovingians? (Use source 1 to answer this question.)
Who was Clovis and why was his conversion to Christianity important in history? (Use source 2)


No, they probably weren’t friendly towards each other because there were many wars and unfriendly events that were occurring during that time, which probably didn’t give them happy.
They had a brutal king named Clovis, who loved bloodshed on a battlefield. He became a Christian after 15 years. Soon the Merovingian kings lost control of the region inherited by the Franks.
Clovis was a brutal leader that loved bloodshed on battlefields. He was very critical and after 15 years he converted to Christianity. He encouraged many others to convert to his new faith and defended his religion from invading Muslims.

Assignment 2

Directions: Using the source above, answer these questions clearly on your wiki page.
1. What is considered the beginning of the Middle Ages?
2. What is the Latin name for the Middle Ages?
3. Why do you think the Middle Ages are often called the "Dark Ages"? What was the only hope for people during these difficult times?
4. While Europe was in the "Dark Ages", what was happening in the rest of the world?
5. How long did the "Dark Ages" last and what year did they end?
What does Renaissance mean and what happened during this time?


The beginning of the Middle Ages is called the “ Dark Ages,” because Greece and Rome had fallen.
The Latin term is “ medieval.”
It was called the “ Dark Ages” because it was a long period of evil and hopelessness, and many people were having a difficult time surviving in society. Their only hope was their strong belief in Christianity and the hope that when they were lifted to heaven it would be better than life on Earth.
The rest of the world was flourishing and more things were being discovered and invented.
It lasted from 476 AD until 1000 AD.
Renaissance means “ rebirth” and it was the beginning of modern history. Art and lots of new works were produced during this time.

Assignment 3

Clovis and future Merovingian kings ruled the Frankish Kingdom for about 200 years (481 C.E. to 700 C.E.). Then came Charlemagne, who was the son of Pepin the Short. Answer the following questions using the sources above.
1. How did Charlemagne and the Franks turn their kingdom into an empire?
2. What did Charlemagne do to educate people?
How and why did Charlemagne preserve ancient texts?


This was because Charlemagne ruled. He was a wise ruler. He helped encourage learning.
He opened schools around the kingdom because he was concerned about the way that people lived life without learning anything.
He gathered all his top scholars and had them work to preserve the ancient texts so they could be used for future generations of learners.

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  • Middle Ages
  • medieval
  • Patrick
  • monks
  • monasteries
  • Benedict
  • Charlemagne

1. a. How are monks and monasteries related?
b. Why did missionaries travel to northern Europe?
c. Why do you think monks followed such strict rules?

2. a. What is Charlemagne famous for?
b. What do you think Charlemagne’s greatest accomplishment was? Why?

3. a. What areas of Europe did the Vikings raid?
b. Why were people in Europe so frightened of Viking raids?

4. Using your notes, determine which events brought unity to Europe and which brought division or disruption. Write your answers in the interactive graphic organizer.

5. Now you see why you might need the protection of knights. Look back at your list and add to it. What services might you hire knights to perform?


The Middle Ages was a long time of darkness. It wasn't exactly 100% full of dark and evil events, but a lot of this time was like this. It was full of medieval things like merchants and castles, nobles and knights.
Medieval means sort of old fashioned. For example, the Medieval Times. Back then many things were old fashioned, like knights in "shining armor" and women wearing veils and heavy patterned dresses.
Patrick is supposedly a myth that started some sort of St. Patrick fad in the Medieval times.
Monks are men of a religious community that live under vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience.
Monasteries are places where communities of holy men like monks and nuns live under religious vows.
Benedict was a man that formed the basis of Western monasticism.
Charlemagne was king of the Franks and holy Roman emperor and became a legacy after he died. He promoted arts and education during his lifetime when he lived in his society.

Answers to longer questions

1a) Monks are among the many other deeply religious people that live IN monasteries under their own religious vows.
1b) Missionaries traveled to Northern Europe because....?
1c) I think monks followed such strict rules because they are simply just deep religious people and very much believed that what they had faith in was the only thing that everyone else should believe in, including Gods, traditional events, and rituals.

2a) Charlemagne is famous for helping improve society by promoting things like education and he was also king and holy Roman emperor.
2b) I think his biggest accomplishment was....?

3a) The Vikings raided
3b) They were frightened because the Vikings had a lot more power and were more threatening than others.

4) *In graphic organizer*

5) I think I'd hire the knights just to go out to battle, protect the serfs (however you spell it) and common citizens (do not allow them to be harsh or unfair to the serfs/slaves), and defend the castle grounds and walls. Maybe sometimes they could act as my messengers.

Rastafari - The Religion

The founding date: 1930.

There are no official church buildings or leaders. Each individual group and person is autonomous.
Autonomous means self-government.

It is also called Rastas.

It is most often associated with dreadlocks, smoking of marijuana and reggae music, the Rastafarian religion is much more than just a religion of Jamaica. It began in the Jamaican slums, now Rastafarianism has spread throughout the world and currently has a membership of over 700,000 people.

The founder was named Marcus Garvey.

This religion accepts Haile Selassie I, the former emperor of Ethiopia, as Jah (the Rastafari name for God incarnated), and part of the Holy Trinity as the messiah promised to return in the Bible.

1. In what way are the Muslims you see in the photo gallery different?
2. What do you think accounts for these differences?
Answer to #1:

The Muslims in the photo gallery are different the way they worship Allah. They all look different physically.
The location where they live depends on how they look. They are different from each other but similar in the races they have.

Byzantium Empire
Rome splits in 330 C.E into Western and Eastern Empires.
The capital of the Eastern empire, that survives, is Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
The origin of the Byzantine Empire is Constantine.
Christianity is the big religion at this time.
Rome was weakening due to political troubles, barbarian invasions, inflation, and it's LOCATION.
Byzantium is easy to defend and great for trade. It's location was too far away from all it's provinces. That's why they had to split it.
Constantinople was in an easy location.
The Western Empire is threatening to bring Constantinople with it.
Trade and industry made Byzantium wealthy. (How Byzantium did so well)
The nomisma(coinage-gold coins), became the standard coin throughout the Mediterranean. The empire's wealth came from taxes: sale
taxes, property taxes. and income taxes.
The head of the Empire(emperor): controlled: taxes, army, treasury, presided over the festivities, and head of the Eastern Orthodox Church. He was the most powerful person in the Empire. It didn't mean that he was all powerful, though.
They had a system of checks and balances. It is a system of government where people are prevented from getting too powerful. There were 3 groups of electors: senate, army, and citizens. By voting, these groups could choose a successor and throw an emperor out of office, like impeaching, the word we use today.
At its height, the Byzantine Empire had the strongest military and army.
The Navy was smaller than the army, but it had a secret weapon called Greek Fire. It was a metal lion where the Greek Fire was put in. They shot it out of the metal lion and into the other enemy ship, and water could not put it out, because it was probably made from petroleum products or oil. It is a special kind of fire.

Assignment #5

#1: List at least three Roman province names that you recognize.
Italia, Armenia, and Africa.

#1 Part 2: Give the modern name of the Roman provinces that you listed.
Southern Italy is modern Italia, Southwest Russia is modern Armenia, and Africa is still Africa today.

#3: Where are you from and how were the Romans able to conquer you?
I (pretend I am a gladiator) am from another country that was once enemies with Rome. Romans take barbarians they fought as prisoners, sell them to slave owners as slaves, and train them to be gladiators. The Romans conquered me just by winning the war against me.

#4: What are two consequences of your defeat?
Two consequences are: to decide whether you die or stay alive, the emperor watching has to agree to let you live if you ask. Also, the crowd has to do the thumbs up sign, which means the winner has to let me go. If they do the thumbs down sign, it means they want to see me killed, so the winner kills me.

#5: What happens to you in the market?
In the market, I am sold to someone that owns slaves and then taken to be auctioned for at the slave stand.

#6: What will you become? What could you have become? Which is better?
You will become a gladiator when you are trained at the arena. You could have become a regular slave to the owner, but instead you spend all your time at the arena training instead of doing chores for your master. Being a slave is better because you do not get death like a gladiator does, and will be able to at least lead a normal life instead of fighting beasts and enemies.

#7: Who is your favorite person on staff? Why?
My favorite person on staff is the cook because they don’t hurt or do anything bad to the pupils...the cook feeds them and keeps them healthy so they do not die or fall weak in the real competition.

#8: Which gladiator do you want to be? Why?
I think I want to be a samnite because they have a regular sword and shield and armor so you can actually fight and defend yourself. Other gladiators have just a dagger or a helmet and even just a net!

#9: How will the crowd be entertained?
The crowd wants to see blood and someone being killed. They will cheer on the person they feel will win, and do thumbs up or thumbs down when it comes to deciding life for the loser.

#10: When can you have a rest?
You cannot have a rest until you are defeated or you win. If you are about to be killed while lying on the floor, that is like a rest while you wait for the emperor to appeal to you, or for the crowd to decide.

#11: How do you appeal to the emperor?
To appeal to the emperor, you must raise one finger on your left hand. He will then ask the crowd if they want the gladiator to have life or death.

#12: What happens to you?
A. If you appeal to the emperor and the crowd puts their thumbs down, that means the winner can kill you. If the crowd puts their thumbs up, that means they want you to live, and neither gladiator will die.

Assignment 7

#1: The Rubicon River was the boundary where a general had to disband his army before returning to Rome.

#2: Pompey didn’t stay in Rome to fight Caesar because he needed to protect the Republic and knew that Caesar would try to get the money from the Senate. He needed an open place to fight him so he could try out some strategies that Caesar had used with the Gauls.

#3: Rome was abandoned in 49 B.C.

#4: Caesar wanted the money from the Senate for helping stop the civil war Marcellus was trying to start, so the Republic could be ended safely because it was corrupted and people had too much power.

#5: Caesar got the money from the Senate by defeating Pompey’s army the second time they fought.

#6: After defeating Pompey in the Alesia Wars, Caesar returned to Rome and made himself dictator for life.

#7: Pompey fled to Egypt and was murdered there.

#8: Caesar stayed in power for 4 years.

#9: Caesar was killed on 44 B.C by a group of enemy Senators that hated him and agreed with Marcellus Cato that he only wanted power.

#10: The Ides of March has become the name of his assassination.

Assignment #10

*In what ways did the culture of the Huns differ from that of the Romans?
The culture of the Huns was quite violent and unadvanced. The Romans’ culture was developed and the people were well disciplined, not like the Huns, because the Huns were barbarians.

*How did the way of life of the Huns give them an advantage against Rome? How was it a disadvantage?
It gave them an advantage because even though they were an undeveloped tribe, they had won many battles and were more experienced than the obedient Romans. It was a disadvantage because since they were also undeveloped, they had no real strategy to attack.

*Why did the barbarians move into the Roman Empire?
The main reason was because the Huns had started to move in, too. The pressure from the Huns forced other tribes and groups to move, too.

*What routes did these invaders take?
First the invaders invaded frontier regions, and then finally moved into the Roman territory.

*How were they treated by the Romans when they began moving into the Empire?
The Romans could not do anything about it because they were vulnerable to attack and the Empire was very disorganized by that time.

*Why was Attila so feared?
He had 100,000 soldiers and had already attacked 70 cities. He had a lot of power over people.

*Why were the Eastern provinces of the Roman Empire initially untouched by barabarian invasions in the 4c and the 5c CE?
It survived and flourished instead, because the barbarians just wanted to pull the last Roman emperor from the throne.